Definitions of language games
Many famous linguistics researchers provide several definitions of games. Before introducing the final definition of language games, we will define some ideas and concepts of games.
According to Hadfield (1998, p. 4), language games are defined based on comparison with the term “games” in general. Games are defined as “activities with rules, a goal and an element of fun.” In this definition, games are evaluated carefully and emphasize on the relaxing purpose combining with helpful tasks, strict and detailed guidelines, and reasonable objectives in order that students are possible to follow and achieve. Similarity, Greenall (1990, p. 6) considers a game “is used whenever there is an element of composition between individual students or team in a language activity”. In the study, Greenall (1990) further emphasizes the significant effects of games. In language games activities, it is able to increases the reasonable chances for students to cooperate with a friendly learning environment besides individuals tasks. Along with learning new language items, students also learn the methods of how to cooperate with their peers or their team. They are willing to study new things instead of uncooperative attitude in learning or doing the tasks. Students also directly compete or fully cooperate during the time the games take place.
In general, as it can be seen from many researchers, a game is an organized activity involving properties as a particular task or objective and a set of rules, with the purposes of entertainment, cooperation, competition and communication between players by spoken or written language (Rixon, 1981; Hadfield, 1990; Hadfield, 1998, Greenall, 1990)
Types of language games
Different writers have different classifications of games. According to McCallum (1980), games are classified into seven kinds: Vocabulary games, number games, structure games, spelling games, conservation games, writing games, and role-play and dramatics. It is obvious that these kinds of games focus on language skills and components; therefore, a teacher who understands games in this way is much more likely to choose games that are suitable for a particular purpose. This study is conducted to enhance students’ vocabulary; therefore, the language games chosen in this study is necessary to focus on the vocabulary field.
Unlike McCallum, Greenall (1990, p. 11) classifies games into eight groups according to their functions and techniques in a different way:
- Do-it-yourself simulation: It is an activity in which the students play themselves in a situation which he/she has either experienced or can at least relate to in some way.
- Role-play: Students are required to react in accordance with the identity or the role marked on the card, developing the character with improvised dialogue in either an everyday situation or a clearly defined setting.
- Describing: This is a simple situation in which one person has a certain item of information which he/she can only reveal by drawing, mime, roundabout description or Yes/No answer to questions put by the others.
- Matching pairs: This is where words, pictures, lines of dialogue, etc. are divided into more than two parts and then shuffled. One part is given to each of the students who must then find his/her partner.
- Jigsaw: It is similar to Matching Pairs. It is divided into more than two parts and the students have to work to match them together.
- Logical sequences: This technique is similar to Jigsaw, but it is used for materials such as strip cartoons, song lyrics or proverbs of which the components can be reconstructed in the correct and logical order.
- Board games: The teacher thinks of a situation, which involves some sequence of events, and asks students to think of a number of favorable and unfavorable events that might occur as the players proceed.
- Discussion: Activities can be used as a springboard for discussion or questionnaires.
Nonetheless, Wright, Betteridge, and Buckby (2006) divide games into eight sections according to each family type. The family name is often a verb summarizing the most important way, which engages learners in the game. The authors state that games can take one of the following forms:
- Care and share: Learners feel comfortable in those games when sharing personal information with other learners.
- Do: move, mine, draw, obey: The learner is expected to do something non-verbally in response to a read or a heard text.
- Identify: discriminate, guess, speculate: The learner is tested to recognize something which is hard to distinguish about something which is then contrasted and the certainties.
- Describe: The learner is tested to depict something to an alternate learner, by talking or composing, so well that the other learner can do something objectively or subjectively, conveying his or her own sentiments and affiliations.
- Connect: compare, match, group: The learner is challenged to connect, compare, match or group various items of information, perhaps pictures or texts or subjectively. He or she uses language to describe or comment on the pairs of information.
- Order: The learner is challenged to put various bits of information into an order of quality and importance, subjectively or objectively, or to put texts, pictures, objects, into a development sequence.
- Remember: The learner tries to remember something and then communicate what he or she has remembered
- Create: The learner is challenged or invited to make a story, write a poem or produce some other kind of material using their imagination.
In another way, Hadfield (1998) divides games into two categories: Linguistics games, in which the goal of the games is linguistics accuracy, for example, producing a correct structure or remembering correct words, and Communicative games, in which the activities like drawing maps or matching pictures are carried out by using language. Similar to Hadfield’s definition of games, Rixon (1981, p. 22) classifies games into two main groups based on correctness and communication effectiveness. They are code-control games and communication games.
- Code-control games: In these games, players have to produce language correctly or prove that they have made a correct interpretation of a special piece of language. A limited range of language is repeated correctly makes games similar to their functions to drills. As with a drill, the other students express opinions about the correctness of responses. The teacher plays an important role in leading or controlling these games. The teacher also is the person who decides to award for correct answers and refuses incorrect ones.
- Communication games: These games mainly focus on communication but not absolute correctness. “Firstly, language is too distorted by mistakes will fail to communicate anything, and secondly, the range of language need in many of these games can be limited so that students are repeating structures any times” (p. 27).
This article covers the two main areas of games use in language teaching, which are different definitions of games by different researchers and types of games that can be employed in ESL/EFL classrooms. The writer of this article hopes that these two aspects can somehow help teachers of English have a thorough understanding of games in order to use them effectively in their teaching practice.
For preschool and early childhood learning, please refer to the article on Phonic resources for teachers and parents