Words can be separated into eight groups:
The essential part of a sentence is verbs. A sentence is not complete without a verb because the verb describes what the subject is doing. The verb tells the story of what is happening. It is possible to have a sentence with one verb or a verb and a noun. For example, Peter runs. A complete sentence can even be Run! Verbs are typically ‘doing’ words like Running, Singing, eating, etc. However, there are exceptions, Thinks, feel, recognize, believe, knows, etc.
Types of verbs:
- Action verbs (requiring an action)- Go, eat, stand, listen
- Mental verbs (requiring a mental state) – Think, feel, recognize, know
- Auxiliary verbs (gives context to the main verb) – Would, Should, Do, Can
- Transitive verbs (Someone or something receives the action of the verb) – Show, take, love, respect
- Intransitive verbs (No direct object follows the verb) – traveled, arrived, sat, eats
- Stative verbs (a non-action verb – to be, to have, doubts, agrees
- Modal verbs (expressing obligation or possibilities) – I should, you must, Fred would
- Phrasal verbs (a combination of words that take on a different meaning) – Face up to, bring out, Hang out
- Irregular verbs (do not take regular spelling patterns of past simple or past participle verbs) eat, think, bring, buy
Types of nouns
- Common (refers to people in things in general) – man, apple, cat, happiness
- Proper (identifies a particular person, thing or place. The first letter is capitalized.) – Donald, Arabia, Buenos Aries, Tuesday
- Abstract (refers to ideas, conditions, and qualities that have no physical reality) – idea, truth, happiness, danger
- Concrete (refers to people and things that physically exist) – cat, bridge, coffee, tree, rain
- Countable (relates to things that can be counted) – vertebrae, beans, cats
- Uncountable (refers to things that cannot be counted, they do not have a regular plural form) – air, rain, water
- Compound (when two or more words are joined together to make a single noun, they can be hyphenated) – keyboard, hotdog, seawater, pot-belly
- Collective (refers to groups of things or people) – family, government, team, jury
Adjectives are words that describe a noun, this can be the quality (state) or quantity of a noun, for example:
- Quality – That is a beautiful dress.
- Quantity – Your dog has many fleas
Adverbs further describe an action or intensify the meaning of a word, they modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs; they usually end in -ly. Examples of an adverb modifying a verb, adjective, and another adverb:
- Verb – Her run abruptly ended when she fell off a cliff.
- Adjective – His behavior demonstrated his delightfully quirky personality.
- Another adverb – He ran swiftly and quietly through the streets.
Pronouns substitute a noun or a noun phrase, they are known as antecedents and are used to avoid repetition in a sentence. The twelve types of pronoun are discussed in my article – pronouns what are they and when to use them
Conjunctions are words that connect phrases, or clauses in a sentence, or words that coordinate words in the same clause, examples are:
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between two words.
- A child from the stars. The word ‘from’ tells us the relationship between the child and the stars.
- Fertilizer for the plants.
- Other examples of prepositions include – in, out, on, at, around, above, near, alongside
An interjection reveals the emotions of the speaker. Interjections are usually punctuated with an exclamation mark, but can also be punctuated with a comma or question mark. Interjections are typically used in informal speech. In literature, they are used in a dialog to represent casual conversation.
- Good gracious!
- Oh, really?
- Well, ain’t you a peach.
An article is a word that modifies a noun which is a person, place, thing, or idea. Articles are types of adjectives but are used to point out or refer to a noun. Examples:
- Definite Article – The spots on the sun. ‘The’ points out precisely to what is being referred.
- Indefinite Article – A peculiar afternoon. ‘A’ points out what being referred, but is not specific.
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